Sulfur doped carbon porous as an efficient catalyst for sustainable energy processes
Environmental progress & sustainable Energy. Volume39, Issue1, 2020,
13299Hossein Tavakol, Fahimeh Hassani Abstract The chemical vapor deposition method has been employed to produce carbon porous (CPs) and sulfur-doped carbon porous (SCPs). Mo-Fe/CaCO3 and Fe/CaCO3 have been used as the catalysts for the growth step, which Fe/CaCO3 produced the more appropriate products with smaller diameters in higher yield. Moreover, different growth temperatures were used and among all examined temperatures (750, 800, 850, 900°C), the product produced at 750°C (SCP750) has the smallest diameter, the highest sulfur content and the least defect in its structure. The product with 0.5% Mo content in the catalyst showed the highest yield and The ID/IG ratio of SCP750 is less than that of SCP900. The sulfur content of in SCP750, SCP800, SCP850, and SCP900 (using EDS analyses) are respectively 7.6, 3.8, 6.9, and 5.7 w/w%. The porosity of the product (SCP750) was examined using adsorption–desorption diagrams, which showed macro-porous structures with the diameters of the pores between 40 and 80 nm and high surface area (770.9 m2/g). Finally, the abilities of all products (CPs and all SCPs) as a catalyst for sustainable energy processes, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) were investigated. In both electrochemical reactions, SCPs had better activities than CPs. However, the products showed appropriate efficiencies only in OER reaction and among doped products, SCP750 and SCP800 showed the highest catalytic efficiencies. The results showed that doping is an appropriate way to enhance the catalytic ability of this type of non-metal materials in OER and HER reactions.